Existentialism

Existentialism “Existence precedes essence” – Jean-Paul Satre Existentialism is a philosophical and cultural movement, born in the late 19th and early 20th century, which focusses on the importance of the individual – a thinking, feeling, acting human being. It is a catch-all term for philosophers who shared the belief that all philosophical thinking should begin…

Economics – From Smith to Keynes

History of Economics Adam Smith Adam Smith (1723-1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and economist. An empiricist, and one of the key figures of the Scottish enlightenment; Smith is often cited as the ‘father of modern economics’. Smith’s great work, The Wealth of Nations, uses examples of real people (case studies) and thinks he has…

Seminar Paper: The New Journalism

“The New Journalist is in the end less a journalist than an impresario.” – Mike Arlen Penny Papers: the ‘old’ journalism, and ‘yellow journalism’: In America there were The Penny Papers, these could be brought for 1p they were controlled and funded by political parties putting forward a point of view. Objectivity became much more…

Totalitarianism

Totalitarianism George Orwell George Orwell (1903-1950), whose real name was Eric Blair, was a novelist, journalist, and broadcaster. Orwell was a disillusioned socialist, who became bitterly anti-communist. He is often mistaken as a Marxist but this untrue. Orwell is famous for his novels (most notably Animal Farm and 1984), which are heavily critical of Communism, and…

Frege

Frege – Logic and Mathematics Logic Gottlob Frege (1848-1925) was a German mathematician, philosopher and logician, and is largely responsible for the birth of modern logic. Logic in philosophy does not have the same meaning as “logic” in ordinary language. Logic in philosophy is a way of analysing language; but to analyse language you must…

Seminar paper: Freud

Bio “Freud was born into an Austrian Jewish family in 1856 and spent almost all of his life in Vienna. He trained as a doctor and went into medical practice in 1886. In 1895 he published a work on hysteria which presented a novel analysis of mental illness. Shortly afterwards he gave up normal medicine…

Social Darwinism

Social Darwinism leans towards the political right, lends itself to racist thinking: white people are more evolved than black people. Nietzsche believed humans were not well adapted, because humans are not adapted to any specific environment. But, have evolved to fit any environment, have evolved the skills to shape the environment to fit them. The…

Max Weber

“It is horrible to think that the world could one day be filled with nothing but little men clinging to little jobs and striving towards bigger ones.” – Max Weber, describing bureaucracy. German philosopher, Max Weber (1864-1920), was fascinated by power; specifically where it comes from and how it can be made legitimate. Also a…

WR Hearst & Modernism

Modernism is a movement which rejects classical values, traditions and rules in all aspects of society: in art, music, dance, politics, economics, religion and philosophy. The movement stemmed from the rebellions across Europe, against the existing societal norms, and more specifically, was a revolt against Romanticism, and the ideal of representation. Modernism in art, for…

The Dreyfus Affair

The Dreyfus affair was a political scandal that divided France and had a massive and lasting effect on the on Judaism, anti-semitism and the media. The Dreyfus affair was really the birth of the ‘Innocence Project’, i.e. using the power of journalism and the media to right miscarriages of justice. In September 1894, secret French…

Hegel Seminar Paper

The paper I wrote for my seminar on Hegel. Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) was hugely influential in the late 18th and 19th centuries, as influential (especially in Germany) in that time, as Aristotle had been during the middle ages. Hegel’s epistemology is somewhat unique, and is one of the most complex philosophical ideas, but ultimately…

Karl Marx

Karl Marx Karl Marx (1818-1883) was a Prussian-German philosopher and socialist, often linked with the birth communism and Marxism, though he in fact was not responsible for either movement. His most notable work, ‘The Communist Manifesto‘ did help develop the ideas of communism and socialism. Marx was heavily influenced by Hegel, in particular by his…